A neural network is a method in artificial intelligence that teaches computers to process data in a way inspired by the human brain. It uses interconnected nodes or neurons in a layered structure that resembles the human brain. Artificial neurons are arranged into layers to form neural networks, which are used for various tasks such as pattern recognition, classification, regression, and more. These neurons form solid connections by altering numerical weights and biases throughout training sessions.
Despite the advancements of these neural networks, they have a limitation. They are made up of a large number of neurons of similar types. The number and strength of connections between those identical neurons can change till the network learns. However, once the network is optimized, these fixed connections define its architecture and functioning, which cannot be changed.
Consequently, the researchers have developed a method that can enhance the abilities of artificial intelligence. It allows artificial intelligence to look inward at its structure and fine-tune its neural network. Studies have shown that diversifying the activation functions can overcome limitations and enable the model to work efficiently.
They tested AI on diversity. William Ditto, professor of physics at North Carolina State University and director of NC State’s Nonlinear Artificial Intelligence Laboratory (NAIL), said that they have created a test system with a non-human intelligence, an artificial intelligence(AI), to see if the AI would choose diversity over the lack of diversity and if its choice would improve the performance of the AI. Further, he said that the key was allowing the AI to look inward and learn how it learns.
Neural networks that allow neurons to learn their activation functions autonomously tend to exhibit rapid diversification and perform better than their homogeneous counterparts in tasks such as image classification and nonlinear regression. On the other hand, Ditto’s team granted their AI the ability to autonomously determine the count, configuration, and connection strengths among neurons in its neural network. This approach allowed the creation of sub-networks composed of various neuron types and connection strengths within the network as it learned.
Ditto said that they gave AI the ability to look inward and decide whether it needed to modify the composition of its neural network. Essentially, they gave it the control knob for its brain. So, it can solve the problem, look at the result, and change the type and mixture of artificial neurons until it finds the most advantageous one. He called it meta-learning for AI. Their AI could also decide between diverse or homogenous neurons. He further said that they found that the AI chose diversity in every instance to strengthen its performance.
The researchers tested the system on a standard numerical classifying task and found that the system’s accuracy increased with the increase in neurons and diversity. The researchers said the homogeneous AI achieved an accuracy rate of 57% in number identification, whereas the meta-learning, diverse AI achieved an impressive 70% accuracy.
The researchers said that in the future, they might focus on improving the performance by optimizing learned diversity by adjusting hyperparameters. Additionally, they will apply the acquired diversity to a broader spectrum of regression and classification tasks, diversify the neural networks, and evaluate their robustness and performance across various scenarios.
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